From The Player Project
The old FAQ is located here, you may be interested in the old FAQ if you are still using very outdated versions of the Player project software.
I have problems, documentation didn't help me, how can I get help?
See Getting help page.
What's the right way to report bugs and ask questions on the mailing lists?
Nobody actually asks this question, but many should. The guidelines for messages on the mailing list can be found in the getting help page.
It is very important that you read that page before posting to the mailing list. At least if you are meant to be helped efficiently.
Which versions of Player, Stage and Gazebo are compatible?
TODO: insert compatibility table here
Where can I find binary packages?
We don't maintain binary packages for Unix-like systems, but some users and Linux distributions do. We do provide a binary installer for Windows. Look on the Download page for more details.
What's the story of Player's creation?
The story of the Player/Stage project can be read in the Player's history page.
What other information about the Player/Stage Project is available online?
Some online sources in rough order of usefulness:
- The 'official' documentation page at Sourceforge
- The Wiki for Player project
- Mailing list archives. Many questions have been answered here.
- Old FAQ page, mostly moved here
- P/S Wiki at the Autonomy Lab
- player will succeed | Player notes on Dylan Shell's Robotics Wiki at the Interaction Lab
- Guia basica de Player/Stage (Spanish installation and usage guide for P/S)
- Please submit links for this FAQ
What is a "local" or "user" installation?
See the Local installation tutorial.
Why are Player and Stage (etc) so named?
How can I make movies from screenshots?
Many P/S/G programs (including playerv, playernav, stage, and gazebo) can dump screenshots, and you might want to assemble these screenshots into a movie, for example to include in a presentation. Unfortunately, there is no good (universal) method for animating frames into a movie that will play on all platforms. Some known methods, all of which have pros and cons:
- On Linux, use mencoder (comes with mplayer). Works great, but the movies it makes generally don't run on Windows machines (some kind of DIVX problem). Sometimes Windows Media Player will play these movies, but Powerpoint won't let you embed them in a slide (maddening, isn't it?). Encoding with MPEG1 does work, but it looks terrible.
- On Windows, there is a nice freeware binary called BMP2AVI (google it) that does the trick. Simple, but pretty effective.
- On Windows/OS X, you can pay $30 for the full version of QuickTime, and use that to make your movies. You can generally tweak it so that the movies play on all platforms (QuickTime on Windows and MPlayer on Linux).
- xvidcap: Captures snapshots or movies of areas of the screen.
- wink: Input formats: Capture screenshots from your PC, or use images in BMP/JPG/PNG/TIFF/GIF formats. Output formats: Macromedia Flash, Standalone EXE, PDF, PostScript, HTML or any of the above image formats. Use Flash/html for the web, EXE for distributing to PC users and PDF for printable manuals.
Please let us know if you can come up with a better solution.
What is Player?
Player is a device server that provides a powerful, flexible interface to a variety of sensors and actuators (e.g., robots). Because Player uses a TCP socket-based client/server model, robot control programs can be written in any programming language and can execute on any computer with network connectivity to the robot. In addition, Player supports multiple concurrent client connections to devices, creating new possibilities for distributed and collaborative sensing and control.
More information on the Player page.
How is Player different from other robot interfaces?
Previous work in the area of robot programming interfaces has focused primarily on providing a development environment that suits a particular control philosophy. While such tools are very useful, we believe that implementing them at such a low level imposes unnecessary restrictions on the programmer, who should have the choice to build any kind of control system while still benefiting from device abstraction and encapsulation.
Thus in Player we make a clear distinction between the programming interface and the control structure, opting for a maximally general programming interface, with the belief that users will develop their own tools for building control systems. Further, most robot interfaces confine the programmer to a single language, providing a (generally closed-source) language-specific library to which the user must link his programs. In contrast, the TCP socket abstraction of Player allows for the use of virtually any programming language. In this way, it is much more "minimal" that other robot interfaces.
What hardware and software does Player support?
There is a list of supported devices.
How do I get/build/install Player?
The page has the links and the instructions.
How do I cross-compile Player (e.g., for the iPAQ or Gumstix)?
What is the difference between Player and Stage and Gazebo? What is the difference between Player device drivers and simulated device models in Stage or Gazebo?
See the explanation on How Player works
When I try to connect to Player, I get "connection refused."
That's usually because either Player isn't running or because you're trying the wrong port. To check whether Player is running and to verify on which port(s) it is listening, use netstat. In Linux, the following should help (arguments will be different for other platforms):
- $ netstat --inet --tcp -lp
You should see a list of all processes currently listening on TCP ports; look for player.
How do I add a device driver to Player?
When I run Player (possibly under Stage), it exits with the message "unknown host; probably should quit." What's the deal?
(This seems to occur mostly on OS X) Add an entry to your /etc/hosts for your machine's name. For example, if your machine is called foobar:
127.0.0.1 localhost foobar
There's probably already a line for 127.0.0.1 (known as the "loopback address"); you can just append your hostname to the end of that line.
I have a syntax error involving PKG_CHECK_MODULES. What's the fix?
If you get a syntax error involving PKG_CHECK_MODULES, it is likely that aclocal can't find the pkg.m4 file, which defines this macro. This is common on OS X with Fink, as the pkg-config package puts this file in /sw/share/aclocal, while the standard OS X aclocal program is looking in /usr/share/aclocal. Unfortunately, there is no reliable search path mechanism for aclocal, so the best fix is just to copy (or symlink) /sw/share/aclocal/pkg.m4 to /usr/share/aclocal. This FAQ taken from the Autonomy Lab's P/S Wiki.
Note that this only applied to versions of Player before Player 3.0.0. Player 3 uses the CMake build system.
How can I get high data rates from my SICK LMS laser rangefinder?
It's possible to get scans at 75Hz from the SICK LMS, if you use an RS422 connection, which is a high-speed serial line. If you use a run-of-the-mill RS232 connection, the best you can expect is about 10Hz, depending on angular aperture and resolution.
Look here for one way to use a USB-RS422 converter to get high-speed laser scans.
If you purchased the Quatech card, check out the tutorial High Speed Lidar.
For a detailed explanation of how the LMS works, timing considerations, and what data rates can be expected, look here.
More info and tips on using Player to get high-speed laser scans can be found here.
How do I connect my (Sony or Canon) PTZ camera to a standard serial port (instead of, e.g., the AUX port on my Pioneer)?
ActivMedia robots that are equipped with a PTZ camera often have the camera connected to the AUX port on the P2OS board in the robot. Player does not support control of the camera through this connection, for reasons explained here. Instead, Player requires a standard, direct, serial line to the camera.
Here are some detailed wiring instructions for a Pioneer with a Canon camera and VSBC8 computer, courtesy of Jason L. Bryant at the Navy Center for Applied research in Artificial Intelligence:
Instructions for rewiring a pioneer robot so that the Canon PTZ camera device can be connected to a serial port (ttyS1) the on-board VSBC8 computer rather than to the robot's microcontroller.
Purchase a VISCA - DB9 conversion cable (item # 0002V448 on-line), as well as a length of 20 ribbon connection cable (our cable is about 18 inches long). You will also need a 20 pin header connector.
Attach the 20 pin header to one end of the ribbon taking note of the location pin 1 on both the ribbon and the header connector. At the other end of the cable, split the ribbon into 2 10 pin sections. Cut about 1 inch off of the last pin from each section (pins 10 and 20) so that you now have 2 9-pin cable ends. Now attach 2 DB-9 serial connectors (MALE) to the ends (being sure that pins 1 and 11 go into the proper slots of the connector. The serial connection with pin 1 will eventually go to the serial port on the microcontroller and the other connection will hook to the VISCA - DB9 conversion cable.
Remove the top plate and nose from your pioneer robot. Next,locate and remove the 20 pin header with a 9 wire rainbow colored ribbon from the Serial port on the on-board computer. This header connects to serial ports ttyS0 and ttyS1, however, using the default pioneer configuration, port ttyS1 is unused. The other end of this ribbon connects to the serial port on the microcontroller (look in your pioneer manual for the location of this port or just follow the cable).
Now place the 20 pin header of the cable you just made into the now free serial ports on the computer. Snake the wires under the robot's control panel and to the back section of the chassis. Connect the serial connection from ttyS0 (serial connection with pins 1 - 9) to the now free serial port on the microcontroller. Connect the other serial connection (pins 11 - 19) to the female DB-9 connector on the VISCA to DB-9 conversion cable and snake the rest of this cable up and outside the robot cover. Replace the nose and top cover of your robot. Once you connect the other end of the VISCA cable to the camera, you will now have a working ptz camera on port /dev/ttyS1.
You can test that the connections work by running /usr/local/Aria/bin/demo on the robot, selecting 'C' for camera control, then the appropriate key for your particular camera (Sony, or Canon) connected to a serial port ('@' for a Canon), and finally '2' for serial port /dev/ttyS1.
How can I read image data from a camera?
There are several options for accessing image data from a camera in Player:
- Write a (plugin) Player driver which reads the data directly from the camera (through the camera interface).
- Use socket interface to return the image data to the client side.
- Use an external streaming system, like Quicktime RTSP, gstreamer, VideoLAN or OpenH323.
The first is the recommended way of accessing the camera. By building a driver in Player, the need to transmit camera information via a network is minimized. The Player server can process the image, extract whatever information you require, and return that if necessary. That is how the blobfinder and cmvision "virtual sensors" work. For custom vision processing algorithms (that do not belong in the Player source tree), users can create "plugin" drivers.
Raw image data can be read on the client side using an appropriate proxy ((e.g., CameraProxy in the C++ client, or playerc_camera_t in the C client). Be aware that this options will severly increase network traffic.
Setting up an external streaming server allows you to access the "live" video feed using many other popular programs. Since the data is not travelling via Player, there is less impact on the performance of Player. Also, streaming servers typically compress the images before sending, reducing the network load somewhat. That said, there are no samples in Player/Stage to show you how to do this, as it is completely outside of the project.
Searching the mailing lists for "camera" will bring up most of the previous discussions of this matter.
What is the purpose of the key in a provides or requires field (e.g., the "odometry" in "odometry::position:0")?
This is explained in the Writing Confguration Files tutorial.
What is set odometry, and what does set odometry do?
It's a request to a position2d device (e.g., a mobile robot) to set its internal odometry to a particular (X,Y,theta) value. It doesn't move the robot, just transforms the coordinate system in which odometry will be reported.
Suppose I write a Plugin, how do I set it up to have its own messages?
The 'opaque' interface is designed for this purpose. It allows you to exchange messages with arbitrary content. On the client side, there's an OpaqueProxy. Of course, there will not be XDR wrappers for your custom messages, so you have to do your own (de)marshaling on each side.
The opaque interface is usually used to prototype new interfaces and/ or extensions to existing interfaces. If you would like to add a new interface, you have two options: create a plugin interface or add a new interface definition to player. For custom applications, it's better to create a plugin interface. If the interface needs to be integrated into player, you can follow the instructions at Writing_a_Player_interface
What is Stage?
Stage is a scaleable multiple robot simulator; it simulates a population of mobile robots moving in and sensing a two-dimensional bitmapped environment. When used as a Player plugin, Stage provides virtual Player robots which interact with simulated rather than physical devices. Stage can also be used as link library to create custom simulations. Various sensor models are provided, including sonar, scanning laser rangefinder, pan-tilt-zoom camera with color blob detection and odometry.
More information on the Stage page.
How do I get/build/install Stage?
See the Download page.
When configuring Stage, Player is not found, but I just installed Player OK. What's up?
Stage uses pkgconfig to find Player, so the problem probably lies with your pkg-config setup. First, make sure you have pkg-config installed. Then run it from the command line to make sure it finds Player.
Here's a successful manual run of pkg-config:
$ pkg-config --cflags playercore -I/Users/vaughan/PS-2.0/include/player-2.0
Here's an unsuccessful run, which produces a hint on how to fix it:
$ pkg-config --cflags playercore Package playercore was not found in the pkg-config search path. Perhaps you should add the directory containing `playercore.pc' to the PKG_CONFIG_PATH environment variable No package 'playercore' found
So you need to add the path to Player's installed pkg-config metadata (*.pc) files. These are in $(prefix)/lib/pkgconfig. $(prefix) defaults to /usr/local/ unless you specified it differently on your configure command line. So here's the fix for a default install:
$ export PKG_CONFIG_PATH=/usr/local/lib/pkgconfig $ pkg-config --cflags playercore -I/Users/vaughan/PS-2.0/include/player-2.0
How can I make movies of my Stage simulations?
For Stage 1.6 and up, use the File:Export menu in the GUI to dump screenshots, then see "How can I make movies from screenshots?" question above.
Where is the "sonar" model in Stage?
Stage does not have a "sonar" model, but it does have a "ranger" model that does a reasonable job of modeling sonar and IR rangefinders, or similar arrays of simple rangefinders. The ranger models a sonar or IR cone by raytracing a configurable number of thin diverging beams.
Where can I find the full XML specification for gazebo world files?
Gazebo 0.9 -> THIS NEEDS TO BE INSERTED HERE
What is Gazebo?
Gazebo is a 3D, dynamic, multi-robot simulator. Whereas Stage is intended to simulate the behavior of very large populations of robots with moderate fidelity, Gazebo simulates the behavior of small populations of robots (less than 10) with high fidelity. Read the Gazebo page for more information.
Where does Gazebo run?
How do I get/build/install Gazebo?
How do I build Gazebo on OS X?
Directions for building on Gazebo on OS X can be found in the Gazebo manual, available from the documentation page.
How can I make movies of Gazebo?
Gazebo will not make movies directly, but can be instructed to export still frames, which you can then animate (see how to make movies question above). In versions up to and including 0.3.0, click on the window you wish to export, then press the 'W' key'; frames are saved in PPM format in a directory named "frames-". Note that saving frames will significantly affect Gazebo's performance.
Adding <saveFrames>true<saveFrames> to the camera sensor will save those frames. The frames will be saved in .jpg format.
How can I read image data from a camera?
For libgazebo users, raw image data is available through the gz_camera_t interface.
For Player users, see the FAQ entry on reading camera data; from Player's perspective, Gazebo cameras work just like real cameras (which means you can develop image processing algorithms using Gazebo-simulated images).
How do I get the latest code?
All the code for Player is maintained in Subversion (SVN) repositories at SourceForge. Project-specific instructions for SVN access, both anonymous and read/write, are here.
Stage code is maintained in git repositories at Github. Project-specific instructions for git access, both anonymous and read/writem are here
Player is in SVN. To check out Player, use this command:
svn co https://playerstage.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/playerstage/code/player/trunk player
Stage is now hosted at Github. You can get the very latest Stage using this command:
git clone http://github.com/rtv/Stage.git stage
Gazebo is in SVN. To check out Gazebo:
svn co https://playerstage.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/playerstage/code/gazebo/trunk gazebo
To check out a branch from SVN, say, the release-3-0-patches branch of Player:
$ svn co https://playerstage.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/playerstage/code/player/branches/release-3-0-patches player-3.0.x
To check out Stage 3.2, use this command:
svn co https://playerstage.svn.sourceforge.net/svnroot/playerstage/code/stage/branches/release-3-2-patches stage_3.2
How do I build from an SVN working copy?
The development version of Player uses CMake for its build system. This is an entirely new build system, replacing the old GNU Autotools-based system we used in the past. It's simpler, cleaner and much, much faster to configure, compile and install using this new system. To build Player from SVN, you will need to install CMake (at least version 2.4 is required).
The better way to compile Player is using an out-of-source build (in-source builds pollute the source tree and are harder to clean up). In this configuration you will have two directories: the source directory, containing the Player source, and the build directory, containing the generated build scripts and compiled objects. Once you have the Player source checked out and CMake installed, create a directory anywhere on your system where you have write privileges and change to that directory. Typically, a subdirectory of the source is used for convenience. For example:
$ cd player/ $ mkdir build $ cd build/
Within this directory, execute either cmake (for a text-only interface) or ccmake (for an ncurses-based UI), providing the path to the Player source. Continuing the above example, one of the following two lines would be used:
$ cmake ../ $ ccmake ../
If you used cmake, the configuration will be completed in a single run. It will display output indicating the configuration Player will be built with (enabled/disabled drivers, client libraries, etc.). If you used ccmake, you will be presented with a set of configurable options. Press 'c' to run the configuration, and more options will appear. Configure Player to suit your needs (for example, change CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX to change the location to install to, and enable/disable drivers), then press 'c' repeatedly until the generate option appears at the bottom (usually two or three passes are required). Press 'g' to generate the build scripts.
You can now build and install Player using the build method of your system. This will typically be Make, so execute make:
$ make $ make install
CMake will re-run itself automatically when a CMakeLists.txt file changes. You will typically not have to run it again unless you remove the contents of your build directory. The CMake equivalent of a make clean is to remove the build directory (assuming an out-of-source build).
Stage uses a CMake build system similar to Player's. Follow the directions for Player above.
Instructions can be found in:
How do I contribute documentation?
Patches to fix up the docs would be most appreciated. Patches against SVN/GIT are always better. There's some value to making patches against the latest release, as it's easier for users to apply them. But if you only make one patch, please make it against SVN/GIT (and submit to the patch tracker at SourceForge; that way it won't get lost).